加入收藏
地址:上海市普陀区胶州路941号长久商务大厦10楼
为什么猪肉的英文不叫「pig meat」?
2018-10-09

  顺便说下英国的一个历史的进程,其实核心原因就是,英语就是个以日耳曼的萨克森语为基础被各种语言尤其是法语强奸过的产物啊,就像日语里的外来词,你怎么也找不出来古代的源头在哪里的,否则的话英语造词是很有规律的,当然了,更深的原因在文章后面也会讲。


  (有的人要是自认为自己很了解英国历史,那就直接翻到分割线之后吧。)


  英国的土地上,本来是被占有欧洲大部分领土的部族凯尔特人所占领的,到达这边的主要是一个叫做“布列吞”和一个叫做“盖尔”的部落,布列吞人居住在大岛,盖尔人居住在小的“爱尔兰岛”(盖尔凯尔特语“Eriu”肥沃的土地的意思。),后来南欧罗马崛起的同时,北欧的土着日耳曼人也开始南下进入现在的“德国”地区驱逐凯尔特人,罗马也一路灭了高卢(法国)的凯尔特人,凯尔特人就这样被罗马和日耳曼人给瓜分掉了。


  凯撒虽然几次征这个小岛都没成功,但是这个岛屿确实有个了“不列颠尼亚”这样的名字,也就是布列吞人土地的意思,不列颠岛后来在罗马皇帝克劳狄期间彻底被征服,一时之间成了罗马的行省,但是语言却没怎么罗马化。不过到了后来,日耳曼人在匈人入侵的潮流下彻底崛起,罗马人在内乱里也挺不住了,最终被日耳曼人打成了狗走向末路,撤军后的不列颠尼亚又一次陷入混乱,而下面的故事,就是原始英格兰和英语的形成。


  图匈人对欧洲的侵扰,蓝色范围基本都是日耳曼部落,红色是匈人入侵路线,橙色是日耳曼人逃跑路线,绿色是罗马撤出不列颠路线。


  也就是前面所说的爱尔兰岛的部落“盖尔人”,这群人趁着罗马人撤走,也就想活动筋骨,进入了不列颠岛北部的布列吞分支皮克特人地区,自称“Skots”,这也就是后来“苏格兰”(Skotland)的来源了,一般认为这个名字本来来源于罗马人对凯尔特人的一种蔑称,总之这群盖尔人进入皮克特人的地区和他们混住,逐渐他们可就成了布列吞人最大的一个威胁了。


  皮克特人和这群“苏格兰”盖尔人从北边不断骚扰布列吞人,布列吞人罗马时代就打不过他们,于是他们就学了西罗马人一向爱干的事——收雇佣兵,我们都知道灭亡罗马的就是日耳曼的雇佣兵,所以对面虎视眈眈穷的要死的日耳曼的四个部落,有三个也是前面提过的——盎格鲁人(Angles)、萨克森人(Saxon)、弗里斯然人(Frision)、朱特人(Jutes)就愉快的跑到了不列颠尼亚。


  图罗马灭亡的前夜,英国这个孤岛也被日耳曼人进入。


  苏格兰人和皮克特人是毫无悬念的被压制了,但是你不列颠连苏格兰都打不过,还能打过这4位日耳曼大哥么,所以四个日耳曼部落彻底控制不列颠,并且不断兼并,这也就是英国历史上的——七大王国时期。


  图英国七大王国时期,我们来看一下,盎格鲁人控制的有——诺森布里亚王国、麦西亚王国、东盎格鲁这三个地盘,萨克森人控制的是埃萨克森、苏萨克森、威萨克森这三个国家,其实这也就是音译问题,本来的意思就是Wessex(西萨克森)、Essex(东萨克森)和Sussex(南萨克森),还有一个就是朱特人的肯特王国(Kent),有人说那个弗里斯然人哪里去了,嗯,他们回老家了,也就是现在的荷兰弗里斯兰(Friesland)省。(Mercia打错了。)


  以盎格鲁萨克森为首的四个日耳曼部的入侵导致布列吞人一点一点的被赶走或屠杀,曾经因他们得名的“不列颠”岛很快要容不下他们了,他们最后只能躲在那个曾经被他们称作异族土地的“威尔士”的西部山区苟活,而还有一批布列吞人进入对岸的一个半岛,这也就是现在法国的布列塔尼半岛(Brittany,当然这地还有个外号叫“小不列颠”。),也就是说除了爱尔兰、威尔士还有北部的苏格兰还有这个半岛,凯尔特人几乎没有生存空间了,曾经一直在英国通用的凯尔特语言,也就仅剩下这三个地区。


  而广阔的不列颠除了Thames(泰晤士)、Avon(埃文)、London(伦敦)这样的几个现在也搞不明白什么意思的凯尔特语地名之外,只剩下蛮族日耳曼的广泛统治,这也就是所谓的“盎格鲁萨克森”时代的英国,而日耳曼人占领区也就有了个新名字——Engla land,也就是——the land of the Angles(盎格鲁人的土地)的意思,其实在古英语里面有æ(卢恩字母,开口前元音。)这玩意的存在,出现E\A这样的变化也就很正常了。


  而这个时候的英语,其实和原始的日耳曼语言区别是不大的。


  而欧洲大陆上,毕竟是蛮族征服先进民族,如果不想完全被同化,宗教就只能是最好的一个武器,所以从日耳曼的法兰克人开始,日耳曼人其他部落也都陆续的基督化,甚至最终法兰克人的查理大帝几乎统一西欧,结果还是日耳曼人闹心的传承制度让法兰克帝国分裂成三个,但是西法兰克王国也就是后来的法兰西王国已经从内到外的罗马化了,最后他们说的日耳曼语也变成了通俗拉丁语,也就是法语的前身。


  最终通过肯特王国,基督教也传入了不列颠,而这个时候的英国也开始了大一统的路线,威萨克森国王爱格伯特(Egbert)统一不列颠上的其他6个国家,“英格兰”的雏形正式出现。


  图爱格伯特以攻打麦西亚作理由控制东盎格鲁,然后和埃萨克森击败肯特王国,埃萨克森苏萨克森归附后,统一南部的威萨克森打败麦西亚和诺森布里亚的联军,统一英格兰,英格兰进入威萨克森王朝时期。但是艾格伯特晚年的时候却发动入侵威尔士的战争却没怎么起到作用,而且这个时候一个叫做“诺尔斯人”的部落出现了。


  789年,盎格鲁萨克森编年史记载,一群“商人”杀死了向他们征税的不列颠官员,诺尔斯人(Norse)正式进入了英国的视线,Norse这个词我们现在也能看出来,就是古英语称唿“北边人”的意思,其实这群人就是留在老家——北欧斯堪的纳维亚半岛的日耳曼人。


  这群人虽然也是日耳曼人,却和已经逐渐文明化的日耳曼兄弟们不太一样了,这些人人高马大没文化,战斗力极强,最终成了欧洲日耳曼邦国的巨大威胁,随着四个西日耳曼部落入侵不列颠,诺尔斯人里的“丹麦人”逐渐控制了“日德兰半岛”,这地方也就有了一直被叫到现在的名字“丹麦”了,丹麦和老家的挪威、瑞典的时代到来了。


  诺尔斯人又被称为诺曼人,这群人不断地骚扰不列颠还有法兰西,一波诺尔斯人的老大“罗伦(Rollo)”不断入侵法兰西,最终这倒霉国王没办法,签订了“圣-克莱尔-埃普特”条约,这样西法兰克的北部沿海区域就成了诺尔斯人的——诺曼底公国了,而罗伦也就成了名义上效忠法兰克王国的“诺曼底公爵”。


  图诺尔斯(诺曼)人的征服,蓝色都是日耳曼系控制区,绿色是仅有的凯尔特区(好可怜),法兰西是个拉丁化的日耳曼国家。


  前面说过,毕竟是落后民族,所以这群诺尔斯人在诺曼底这个区域迅速的法兰克化,他们的语言也就变成了古法语,很快就和法国没什么区别了,等到第三代公爵的时候,名字都成了法国化的“查理”了,也就是“查理一世”。


  自然英格兰就更惨了,整整200年,英格兰不停的被这些原始日耳曼人欺负,到了国王埃塞尔雷德二世的时候,最终丹麦诺尔斯人的“斯凡八字胡王”(Sweyn forkbeard)兼并挪威扩大势力,最终彻底击败了英格兰,等到他儿子克努特的时候直接建立了个兼有丹麦、挪威、英格兰、瑞典南部的“北海帝国”。


  图粉色地区,克努特的“北海帝国”。

为什么猪肉的英文不叫「pig meat」?


  可以说就和金朝女真人汉化后被蒙古日一样,同样都是蛮族,一旦文明化,英国的日耳曼人就成了战五渣。


  那么就在英格兰和诺尔斯人打交道的这200多年里,英语也就不可能不被古诺尔斯语影响,但是神奇的是,就连英语曾经表示第三人称复数的hie,hiera,him都已经变成了they、their、them,而且还多了though(来自þ(th)ó)这样的连词等等,按理说一般情况下就算去借词也不至于把这么核心的词给变过来,可是大家不要忘了毕竟诺尔斯人和盎格鲁萨克森人都是日耳曼大家庭的一员,所以两个相似性很高的语言就很可能造成一个人同时掌握两种并且混合使用,久而久之核心词汇出现了偏差,那也就是很正常的事情了,我们来看一下这个时期影响了英语的诺尔斯词汇还有多少。


  anger(angr)嗯,I'm angry。bag来自诺尔斯语的baggi,band(带子)也是来自古诺尔斯语,当然了这个词在被语言学教构拟出来的原始日耳曼语里也是*bindan,而所构建的原始印欧语(PIE)是*bendh(捆绑),其实也差不多。


  birth这个词本来古英语是“gebyrd”(PIE*gheldh),但是最后也借用了古诺尔斯语的byrð,当然了我们要知道其实古英语里g往往退化掉了不发音的,就比如上一篇里面贝奥武夫最后一句那个“gyldan(屈服)”实际上就是现在英语的yield,同样比如古英语里“æg”就是表示圆滚滚玩意的意思,但是后来这个就被写成了eye(eai)也就是眼睛了,但是人家古诺尔斯语的“egg”可没退化,所以也就被英语用过来表示蛋了。


  当然了还有husband来自于古诺尔斯语(以后简称ON)的húsbóndi,sister来源于ON的systir,cake来自于古诺尔斯语的kaka,leg来自于ON的lægg,就连window也是来自ON的vindauga。


  还有就是古诺尔斯语里一些受到原始印欧语词源PIE*sek(切)演变出来的sk-影响的单词(当然了这个词源极其重要,以后会专门说。),skill(技能,古英语croeft,现在演变成craft),skin(皮肤,源自剥皮的意思,英语还有个源自西日耳曼语的词汇,hide“皮”),skirt(这个就更有意思了,本来英语词汇是shirt。),score(刻痕、计分),skive(薄片),当然了再乱入个sky,这个也是来自古诺尔斯语的,而本来古英语的天是heofon(词源不明,同样不明的还有dog)。


  所以在这个时候英语就已经出现了相似意思但是长得很不像的词汇了,这也就是英语的第一次沦陷过程。


  那我们反过来看看这个英格兰国王埃塞尔雷德二世,前面说了他被诺尔斯人国王思凡八字胡王打的毫无还手之力,在整个国家亡国灭种的危机下,只身跑到了法兰西王国去了,只不过这次倒是没带着小姨子,而是投奔了大舅哥,有人说怎么这人大舅哥在法兰西呢,其实他投奔的就是前面说的法兰西的诺曼底公国,我们顺便看下这个法兰西王国的来历。


  日耳曼人占领欧洲后,开始弄出来一个个邦国,虽然最终他们都被日耳曼的法兰克人老大查理曼给统一了,这个法兰克人是日耳曼人里最早学习先进罗马文化(雾)的一波人,所以早就改说了拉丁方言了,日耳曼人有个规矩,往往国王死了之后土地要给后代平分,所以随着法兰克帝国的强大,查理大帝都要统一欧洲了,土地最后又被三个孙子给瓜分了,这样就成了西法兰克王国、东法兰克王国和中法兰克王国。

为什么猪肉的英文不叫「pig meat」?


  图法兰克帝国的查理曼大帝。


  我们知道西法兰克王国就是人家原来罗马的高卢,也是法兰克王国起家的地方,所以是个比较发达并且已经拉丁化的一个区域,前面说了他们的语言也早就从西日耳曼语成了通俗拉丁语分化出来的——古法语了。


  而东法兰克帝国就是还比较不开化的日耳曼人的“德意志”区域,而且说是帝国其实也就是个部落联盟,这群人还是用日耳曼语族的语言,后来还变成了个所谓的“神圣罗马帝国”。唯独占有一部分意大利地区的中法兰克王国很惨,一直在被瓜分,虽然还在说拉丁系的语言,却早就没有当年罗马那两下子了,意呆利的进程就开始了。

为什么猪肉的英文不叫「pig meat」?


  图法兰克(查理曼)帝国的分裂,西班牙还是阿拉伯哈里发的倭马亚王朝。


  后来罗伦那批诺尔斯人被法兰西招安,英国还在被诺尔斯人欺负,他们就和这波法国化的诺尔斯人通婚以保持联系,毕竟这还是一群有文化的蛮族的,两边也就形成了互相利用的关系,那个投奔过来的英格兰国王的老婆爱玛就是诺曼底的贵族。


  所以英格兰的倒霉国王没有办法,突然想到可以投奔自己媳妇家的诺曼底公国,结果这一下又是引狼入室了,最终诺曼底公国公爵威廉一路推回到了英格兰,这下我们大英格兰就成了欧洲最神奇的国家之一了,贵族阶级的诺曼底人根本就不会说日耳曼系的英语而是一群说拉丁方言“古法语”的人,而且作为英国国王的诺曼底公爵名义上还是法国国王手下的小弟,所以这个矛盾越来越深,最终引发了轰轰烈烈的“英法百年战争”,当然了,其实两边的上层都是法国人,争夺的也都是法国的领土o(╯□╰)o。


  我们再回到英国这里——重点来了:


  随着诺曼底人对英国的建设,英国也开始迅速发展,但是人家诺曼底公爵本来就是法国人,所以大量的法国文化传入,表达能力丰富的法语让原来粗糙的英文开始变化,慢慢的古英语成为下层平民的口语,而上层大量使用法语造成了法语总是来描述更“高档”的东西,而英语就只能描述低端物件。


  举个栗子,对于动物英国本来有一套表示的名词,比如公牛ox,母牛cow,绵羊sceap,小牛cealf,鹿dēor,猪pigga等等,这些大家就很熟悉了,如果表示是“肉”的话无非就是在动物后面加一个“flǣsc”(也就是现在的flesh,德语是fleisch),这一点是日耳曼语族常见的模式,我们现在都知道德语丹麦语等日耳曼语族语言的构词法和我们汉语一样有很强的孤立语特征,动不动就把一堆词加在一起搞一个很长很长的单词(就比如丹麦语的kvindehandboldlandsholdet的意思就是“这支国家女子手球队”。),但是英国的法国贵族才不会说这玩意,所以就直接用法语来说了,而下面肉词汇的词源,其实都是拉丁系语言里面这些动物的意思。


  牛肉beef(来自古法语:boef,拉丁语BOV)


  羊羔肉mutton(古法语:mouton,不过神奇的是,这词不是来自拉丁语,而是高卢的凯尔特语*moltos。)


  小牛肉veal(古法语:veel,来自拉丁语:VITULUS。)


  鹿肉venison(古法语:venison,来自拉丁语VENATIO)


  猪肉pork(古法语猪:porc,来自拉丁语:PORCUS)


  这么一来久而久之,下层是不怎么吃得起肉的,上层总用自己的语言这么说肉,动物的名字就用“土着语言”英语来说,慢慢的动物和肉就开始分开,在英语里面肉成了法语词,动物还是日耳曼的词,我们一直苦恼的同意不同词状况开始出现。


  所以我们通过这个管中窥豹一下就可以知道,就连最基本的“吃”上英语都受到了这么大影响,更别提其他领域了,可以说从威廉进入英格兰之后短短的两百年,英语产生了翻天覆地的变化,尤其是法语里面存在原来英语里没有的学术用语和概念用语,也就是说从罗马撤军的800年后,这个岛屿重新进入了拉丁语言的怀抱,而这一次不同于罗马的占领,不列颠岛彻头彻尾的渗入了罗马语言,所以以后我们讲解词源的时候也会发现,极多的词源都是来自拉丁语而不是日耳曼语,就比如前一篇里面说的,月亮明明是moon,为啥月亮的、阴历的就变成了lunar了呢?本来英语的标记是“mark”,为啥其他单词和标记有关的就变成了sign了呢?明明表示“向前”含义都是“for”,为啥那么多的都变成了“pro-”了呢,明明看是“see”,为啥那么多和看有关的单词都变成“vis-”了呢。


  而且英语的日耳曼系的“复合构词法”也逐渐向拉丁系的派生构词法开始发展,派生构词法重意会,就比如“subject”就可以由“向下”“投射”表现出“受支配”的意思,而日耳曼词汇基本都简单粗暴,understand就是表示在位于某东西之下或之内,也就是搞懂了的意思。


  而古法语发音的进入也让英语的读音产生了极大的波动,原来固定读音固定重音的现象在英文里已经不存在了,上层在说法语,下层就随便拼写拼读,甚至可以说很多字母老百姓想怎么读就怎么读,这就造成了英语成了一种少有的读音不按字母走的奇葩语言,当然æ、þ、ð、这些玩意也就彻底灭亡了,而这样就导致本来a,e,æ读音是有很大差别的,æ消失之后就会造成你看见a和e你也不知道到底该发什么音,而遇见th你也不知道到底是发ð还是θ。


  后来因为法国强占诺曼底,老家都被控制的英格兰和法国的战争进入白热化,就和我们对岸的某些人一样,这群世世代代在英国发展的法国贵族们开始有了“英国人”的自我认同,我们就可以理解英国一种“光荣孤立”的雏形开始了,他们开始不把法国当成祖国开始使用英语,英文文献开始重现出现,可能我们以为这样会造成英语的复兴。


  实际上英语最大的变化就是这次风波开始的,这个时代的英文文献,和200年前的英文几乎就不是一个东西了,中古英语时代正式开启,甚至和现在的英语差别也就不大了。对于这群法国人来说英语就等于说一门外语,所以就像日本奈良时代大量用汉语借词表达佛教律令知识一样,这些人说一句英语得加上一堆法语词,这么一来,大约10000多的法语词汇进入英文,可以说这个时候英语除了骨头是日耳曼语言意外,肉甚至灵魂都开始法国化了。


  当然了这个时候大量的拉丁语读出来的基督教人名开始进入英国,英国也不用动不动就XXson的了,比如Simon(耶稣门徒西门)、John(耶稣门徒约翰)、Peter(耶稣门徒彼得)等等。


  当然了这还仅仅是词汇,语法上的变化简直就是翻天覆地了。宾格开始和与格(间接宾语)融合,一种所谓的“间接格”也就是我们现在意义的“宾格”开始出现,这东西我们现在基本就叫“间接宾语”了,而名词和形容词的格变化几乎消退,所有的格变化基本仅仅存在于代词里,所以可以说这个时候的英语除了在代词上还能看得出来的“主格subjective”“宾格(间接格)objective”“属格(所有格)possessive”以外,很难再看到格的成分了,大多数的“格”关系已经变成了介词的引导和语序的变化,甚至很多人认为英语的屈折成分已经消失,基本上就已经是个和汉语一样的“孤立语”了。

暂无评论!
我要评论 只有购买过该商品的用户才能评论。

职场礼节美语 第47期:当朋友成为上司

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作,美国同事Amy到办公室去找他。(Office ambience)A:Good morning,Chen Hao..CH:Hi Amy.A:I heard your best friend Brad got a promotion.Is that true?CH:没错。Brad如今是我的老板了。A:That can make things awkward.CH:是啊,我们俩儿从好朋友一下子变成了上下级的关系,还真不好办。A:I think you will be able to work it out since you already recognize that things will be different.CH:人事处昨天才通知的他,所以我们还没有机会谈起这件事。A:That's one of the first things you need to do and soon.CH:急什么呀,他现在肯定特别忙。A:Everyone knows that you and Brad are close friends.They are going to be watching to see what happens.CH:别说别人了,连我都不知道要怎么处理这种关系。A:It could go two entirely different ways.CH:两种完全不一样的可能?哪两种?A:Because you are his best friend,he might be tempted to give you special treatment by offering you the best assignments and according you unusual favors.CH:如果因为私人关系好,他就在工作上照顾我,那其他人肯定会有意见。A:Yes.It would affect the way everyone views Brad.He could lose the respect of everyone who works with him.C:另外一种可能性呢?A:I don't have time to talk about that right now,Chen Hao.Shall we meet for tea this afternoon and continue our conversation?C:好,那我们下午见。******Mary和Chen Hao两人下午一起喝茶。CH:Amy,我们上午说,如果Brad特别关照我,那对我们两人都不利。你说的另外一种可能是什么?A:He might go out of his way to avoid any hint of giving you special treatment and treat you more rigidly than the others.C:你的意思是,他为了避嫌,可能对我的要求会格外严格?A:He might pass you over for assignments that you might otherwise have gotten.CH:这听起来可不太妙。那下班以后呢?我们以前总是一起去打乒乓球,或是一起去喝酒。A:I know that and I have heard you share some funny stories about each other.You'll have to be more careful about the tales you tell about your adventures.CH:不能再跟同事讲Brad的故事?为什么?A:Others might misunderstand and think that you are trying to impress them with the fact that you and the boss are best friends.CH:要把工作和私人关系分开,还真不简单。你觉得我有必要换到别的部门去吗?A:That's a possibility if things don't work out.If you can't accept Brad as your boss or he can't make the leap to being your supervisor,a change might be the only solution.CH:我想我们两人一定能做到公私分开。
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第46期:残疾说法有讲究

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作,下班后跟美国同事Amy一起往外走。(Office ambience)CH:Hi Amy.碰上你太好了!A:I haven't seen you all day.Is there something on your mind?CH:你还记得不久前,我们那儿来了个坐轮椅的新同事吗?A:Yes,and we talked about your being uncomfortable around her because you weren't sure what to do.CH:现在好多了,我们已经成了好朋友。要是我什么地方做得不得体,她会直截了当地告诉我。A:What do you mean?CH:比如说那天,我们一起聊天,她就很客气地告诉我,不应该把她的轮椅当家具,倚在上面。A:It sounds as if you are handling this issue well.CH:可是,有时候遇到其它handicapped的人,我还是有点儿不知所措。A:First of all,you shouldn't refer to those people as handicapped.That is something of an old-fashioned term that is demeaning to many.CH:不说handicapped残疾人,那要怎么说呢?A:Refer to these employees as having a disability.It shows more respect.CH:这么说是不是太笼统了?别人会问,是什么样的残疾。比如说,我们办公室的Mary就是个聋子。A:If someone asks you what kind of disability,your response is not"She's deaf."Instead you say,"She has a hearing impairment or a hearing problem.CH:听力有障碍?那不就是聋子嘛!这不是一回事吗?A:I'll explain it tomorrow.I have to meet some friends for dinner now.C:那好,明天见。******第二天在办公室。CH:Hi Amy,昨天你说,不应该说Mary聋子,应该说Mary听力有缺陷。这是为什么?A:Because then you are describing her by her disability.If she had a disease,you wouldn't identify her by that.For example,if she had measles,you wouldn't say,"She's measles."CH:这倒也是。那除了耳朵聋要说听力有缺陷,其它身体残碍是不是也不能直说呢?A:Nowadays,you wouldn't say that a person is blind today.You would use the term visually impaired to describe the person.CH:不说盲人,要说视力有缺陷。要是瘸子呢?A:Just say that he has a disability.CH:看来,在这方面,我还真得注意,否则一不小心就会冒犯别人。Amy,你能再重复一下吗?A:Sure.We say visually-impaired,not blind.It's hearing-impaired,and not deaf.Use person with a disability rather than crippled,and person who uses a wheelchair,rather than wheelchair bound.
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第45期:夏日着装

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作,他在餐厅里遇到了美国同事Amy。(Office ambience)CH:Hi Amy.坐下一起吃吧!A:I'd love to.CH:最近有什么新鲜事吗?A:Well,I can tell that word got around about our being able to dress more comfortably during these hot days.CH:是啊,天太热了,公司宣布放松着装要求。你看我,就只穿了长袖衬衣,把西装和领带放在办公室里,万一要见客户再穿。A:Your dress shirt is fine,except that you are not wearing an undershirt.CH:什么?里面还要穿汗衫?那不是更热了嘛!A:Still it is necessary.When a man isn't wearing an undershirt,it is obvious and he looks unprofessional.CH:你能说说男人一定要穿汗衫的理由吗?A:For one it adds polish.Neither men nor women need to be dressed in see-through clothing in the business world.CH:上班不应该穿透心的衣服。还有呢?A:An undershirt adds a layer of protection.CH:多穿一层不是很热吗?A:It's because of the heat that you need the layer of protection.CH:我还是不明白,有什么可保护的啊?A:When you perspire,the undershirt protects the dress shirt from showing the moisture and causing stains.It also absorbs some of the odor if you perspire heavily.C:哦,我明白了,汗衫可以吸汗,这样外面就看不出来汗渍了。******陈豪第二天在办公室遇到Amy.CH:Hi Amy,我今天穿得如何?A:You mean the undershirt?CH:是啊,这回总行了吧!A:I guess I didn't explain myself completely.You are wearing a crew-neck undershirt.CH:穿高领衫难道不行吗?A:It would be fine if your shirt was buttoned at the neck,but you are wearing it open and I can see your undershirt.CH:我以前也见过别人这么穿,所以才觉得没问题的。A:People shouldn't see your undergarments.If you want to wear a shirt that is open at the collar,choose a v-neck style.CH:那好,我中午出去买两件V型领口的汗衫。A:Good idea.And while you are at it,you might want to buy some socks to match your slacks and your shoes.CH:不能穿白袜子吗?A:They don't belong at work.Socks should always match your shoes or your slacks.Besides,white socks are far too casual.CH:那我能不能不穿袜子呢?今天会计科一个新来的就没穿袜子,这样就不存在搭配的问题了。A:I suspect he will hear about that and you'll see him with socks on tomorrow.我知道了,虽然因为天气炎热,公司宣布放松着装,但还是要穿长袖衬衣,里面穿汗衫,如果不系领口,就应该穿V型领口的汗衫,不能让别人看见。谢谢你,Amy.
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第44期:工作场合忌讳口香糖

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他到办公室去找美国同事Amy。(Office ambience)CH:Hi Amy.几天不见,来看看你。A:That's nice of you.I'm fine.CH:你有几分钟的时间吗?A:Certainly.Have a seat,please.CH:你要不要口香糖?A:Thank you,Chen Hao,but I don't believe so.CH:这是一种新口味。我今天早上去买咖啡的时候顺便买的。A:I personally don't like chewing gum.CH:真的吗?为什么呢?A:Chewing gum is a personal preference.Where and when you chew it is NOT.I see too many people chewing gum at inappropriate times and places.CH:嚼口香糖还有规定的时间和地点吗?我不太明白你的意思。A:I'll be happy to explain what I mean later.Right now I have to prepare for a meeting.CH:那我们下班后一起走?A:OK.I'll meet you at the exit at 5:30.******两人下班后一起去地铁站。CH:Amy,你上午说嚼口香糖还有规矩?A:Yes.If you like to chew gum,that is your business,but chewing gum does not belong in the workplace.CH:为什么不?A:It is totally unprofessional anywhere in the business environment.CH:我在电脑前面工作的时候最喜欢嚼口香糖。这样可以让我放松。A:I understand,but what if the boss walks up at that moment and starts a conversation with you?CH:那我就装作嘴里没有口香糖。A:Why would you hide it if you think its okay?CH:我想老板看见我嚼口香糖,心里一定不高兴。A:See.You already know that chewing gum is not a good idea in certain professional situations.CH:可我还是不明白为什么我独自工作的时候就不能嚼口香糖。A:You never know who will walk up to your desk or call you on the phone.If you are caught smacking,it could affect your current job or the career move you had planned for.CH:影响前程?你说得太严重了吧?A:I don't think so.Chewing gum is a leisure activity at best.At its worst,it can make you look sloppy and incompetent.CH:我知道你说的有道理,可我还是觉得独自工作的时候可以嚼口香糖。A:Well good luck.If it gets to be a habit,consider this.One day you will have gum in your mouth when you walk into a meeting.I've seen it happen.CH:有过先例?那结果呢?A:The poor fellow who forgot about his gum got stuck.Every time someone asked him a question,he tried to hide his gum in his cheek.Finally he decided to swallow it.CH:我也听说过这件事,后来成了全公司的笑料。我以后一定注意,在办公室里绝不再嚼口香糖。
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第43期:适度解读肢体语言

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他散会后跟同事Amy一起往外走。(Office ambience)A:CH,What happened to you during your presentation?C:你注意到什么了吗?A:You were doing a great job.You obviously had done extensive research.You had good materials.You were completely confident until half-way through.C:这么说你能看出我后半截很不自在?A:Yes.You suddenly became unsure of your self.C:唉,都是因为Mr.Stone,上个月从纽约来的副总。A:What about him?C:他根本没看我,一直在看其他文件。A:Did you try to ignore that?C:我也试着不去管他,可注意力就是集中不起来。A:Did Mr.Stone do anything else?C:他还在椅子上转来转去,不断看窗外。A:He's the key decision maker these days.C:是啊,现在公司一切都是他说了算,更糟糕的是,他刚刚让秘书通知我,要找我谈话。A:Try not to let this upset you too much until you meet with him.Let me know what happens,will you?******陈豪下午去找Amy。A:How did things go with Mr.Stone?C:完全是虚惊一场。Mr.Stone还表扬我,说我工作很有成绩。A:That's great.C:看他早上开会时的表现,难道我的担心是多余的吗?A:You were reading his body language this morning and he clearly wasn't sending a positive message.C:Body language?肢体语言?A:Words aren't the only way we communicate.We send messages with our bodies.C:那Mr.Stone的肢体语言为什么跟他的想法不一样呢?A:Perhaps he was distracted or had something else on his mind.Evidently he was listening to you,but that is not the impression you got.C:下次再遇到这种情况,我应该怎么办呢?A:Normally,you could have stopped at that point and asked for questions or opinions,specifically addressing the person who didn't seem to be involved.C:停下来征求意见和问题?可Mr.Stone是老板啊?A:In this case,you were in a tough spot since he is the vice-president.C:你别说,有了这件事,我今后肯定会特别注意自己的肢体语言。A:That's a good lesson for all of us.Too often we send nonverbal messages without being aware of how others interpret them.C:这么说来,很多误解都是在不知不觉之中产生的。A:Body language can be used to impress people or to turn them off.It is directly related to good manners if you think about it.C:肢体语言怎么会跟一个人的礼貌和修养有关系呢?A:Positive body language like giving someone your full attention and having a pleasant expression on your face are all part of showing courtesy and respect.C:注意听别人讲话本身就是对别人的尊重。
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第42期:办公室交谈话题

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他在走廊上遇到同事Amy。(Office ambience)C:早上好,Amy.我刚听到一条办公室的小道消息。A:小道消息?C:是关于销售部那个金发美女Sally的。A:I know a Sally Smith in Marketing.I don't know anything about her except that she appears to be quite talented.C:我从来没有跟她共事过,听说挺能干的,不过这件事跟工作无关。A:Then why are you talking about her?C:我听说她结婚刚刚几个月,就在闹离婚了。A:I'm sorry,Chen Hao.What does this have to do with work?C:当然跟工作无关了,说说罢了。A:This is gossip.How did you come to know this?C:会计部的Tim跟Sally是朋友,他告诉了Melissa,Melissa又告诉了我。A:So,is everyone talking about this now?C:大家都在传。Amy,你干嘛那么不高兴,是因为Sally要离婚,替她觉得惋惜吗?A:No.Well,yes,I am sorry to hear that kind of news,but that is not what is bothering me.Let's talk about this over lunch.C:好,那我们中午在餐厅见。******陈豪和Amy一起吃中饭。C:Amy,你早上干嘛那么生气,是我说错话了吗?A:You got into a conversation that you shouldn't have at work.C:你什么意思,我怎么听不懂啊?A:We need to have boundaries in the office.C:Boundaries,界限?A:Yes.Boundaries or limits on what we talk about in the workplace.C:你的意思是说Sally的私事不应该拿到办公室里来说?A:Talking about Sally's private life has nothing to do with our work.Whoever started this kind of gossip overstepped the bounds of office friendship.C:我不是告诉你了吗,是Tim最早开始传的?A:If that is the case,then Sally should have been more careful about choosing her office friends and about what she confided in them.C:难道Sally也有错吗?A:We need to be careful about what we confide to our colleagues.Unless you can trust someone completely and unless you want your private life to become public,be careful what you say to whom.C:我以为同事间应该经常交流,才能有利于搞好关系啊!A:That's true.It's called"small talk."You talk about the weather,what movie you saw last night,your favorite restaurant,where you are going on vacation,but not the personal details of your life.C:可以谈天气、谈电影、谈出去渡假,就是不能谈私生活。A:Be careful about what you tell your colleagues.Those who talk to you about others will also talk to others about you.
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第41期:礼貌使用电话

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他和同事Amy散会一起往外走。(Office ambience)A:Chen Hao,I can't believe what you were doing during that meeting.C:开会的时候?我没干什么啊?A:You were using your cell phone to send text messages.C:噢,不就是用手机发发短信吗,Joe就坐在我旁边,他也一直在发啊。A:He was out of line,too.It's rude to send and receive text messages during a meeting.C:今天会上说的都是Todd的项目,本来就跟我没什么关系,真不知道他干吗让我来参加。A:Even if you felt it was a waste of your time,you needed to give the meeting and everyone there your full attention.C:别人可能根本没注意到我在开小差。A:Several people were aware that you were texting and they didn't look happy about it.What if your boss had been there?Would you have done the same thing?C:如果老板在,我可不敢。A:That should tell you something.He would have called you down for that.C:好,我知道了,这样做是不太礼貌,我下次一定注意。12点了,我们去吃点东西吧。A:Ok,let's go to that little sandwich shop around the corner.******午饭时,陈豪的手机响了。C:是我的电话,对不起,Amy。Hello,Oh,hi Sue.What's up?You can't find the report?It's in a green file folder.Call me back if you don't see it.Bye.A:That was rude.C:难道我不应该接Sue的电话吗?A:It's discounting to others when you take calls and have conversations with people who are not present.C:手机不就是干这个用的吗,这样别人才能随时随地找到我啊。A:You don't have to be available every minute of every day to whoever calls.When you are in meetings or at meals with other people,you should turn off your phone or put it on silent ringer.C:照你说的,开会或是吃饭的时候关上手机,那误了电话怎么办?A:You can always check your voice mail afterwards and return calls later when you are alone.C:如果要是急事呢?A:In that case,you explain to the person or group that you are expecting an important call and ask them to excuse you to answer if it comes in.Then you go to a private location to talk.C:你是说,我应该事先告诉别人,我在等一个重要电话,然后到旁边去接。可是Amy,其他人好像并没有这么做啊。A:That doesn't mean its acceptable behavior or good manners.When you talk on the phone in front of other people,you send a message that the person you are with is not as important as the one on the phone.C:所以说,出于对别人的尊重,能不接的电话就不接,一定要接,就应该事先跟别人打个招呼。
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第40期:接待贵宾

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他在走廊上遇到美国同事Amy。(Office ambience)A:Good Morning Chen Hao.How are you?C:I am fine,不过,我正找你呢。我有点急事要请教你!A:What's going on?C:老板昨天晚上打电话,通知我说,总部有一个高级主管今天要到北京来,让我早上去机场接机,然后下午陪她去天津考察。A:That sounds like a good opportunity for you.I wonder what you did to be selected.C:我也不知道老板为什么让我去。不过啊,我宁可他挑的是别人。A:Why?C:我是一行人等中职务最低的一个,也不知道应该做些什么事情。A:I suggest that you clarify this with...I'm sorry,what is this woman's name?C:Ms.Rose.A:Ask Ms.Rose,when you meet,what you can do to be helpful to her?C:那你觉得她可能需要我做些什么呢?A:When a junior executive is traveling with a senior executive,the junior person generally attends to the logistical details.C:什么是Logistical方面的细节啊?A:Logistical refers to the organizational details of the trip.C:噢,Logistical就是后勤保障的意思。A:Your help may be required when you check in and out of the hotel,tipping,seeing that luggage is handled correctly and taking care of any special needs of the executive team.C:什么?饭店、小费、行李,这些都是我的事?不好不好,来不及了。我得赶紧去接Ms.Rose.我去天津之前再来请教你!A:Anytime.******陈豪中午去找Amy.A:What did you find out?C:你说的一点没错。所有杂事都归我管,包括行程、时间、账单、小费等等。A:It's your job to see that things run smoothly.Ms.Rose does not have to take her mind off business to handle any little annoyances.C:是啊,简单说,就是这样。A:I guess you are"good to go,"as Americans like to say.C:我还有个问题,你可别笑话我!我从来没坐过豪华轿车。你说,在这种情况下,我应该坐在哪个位子呢?A:The first thing to do when the limo arrives is to ask Ms.Rose,"Where do you want me to sit?"C:如果她说随便呢?A:Then as the junior executive,you take the least desirable seat.That all depends on how many people are traveling with you.C:同行的至少会有五名高级主管。A:You could well end up in the jump seat or worse,in the middle of the back seat.C:啊?看来跟上司一起出去,真不是什么好差事。A:Think of it as an opportunity.You could end up being the senior person one day.
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第39期:如何做个证明人

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他在餐厅里找到美国同Amy。(Office ambience)A:Hello Chen Hao.How are you?C:还行。不过,我有点事想征求一下你的意见。A:What is it?C:你认识我们办公室的Sue吗?A:I've worked on a couple of projects with her.Why?C:我告诉你,你可得保密,Sue正在找工作。A:Why is that a problem?C:她让我做她的推荐人。A:That bothers you?C:Sue工作不是很靠谱,推荐她,那不等于说瞎话嘛!A:What did you say when she came to you?C:我没直接回答她。我说那份新工作听上去是个不错的机会,然后就假称要开会,逃掉了。A:I have a couple of suggestions for you.C:太好了,你快告诉我。我今天一天都躲躲藏藏的,生怕遇到Sue。A:Let's sit down over there.******两人坐下,边吃边聊。C:Amy,你快说说,我该怎么办。A:Sue must have some positive traits or she wouldn't be working here.C:优点肯定是有,不过我得仔细想想。A:I suggest that you make a list of her strengths.C:可她的缺点要比优点多得多。A:Try not to focus on her shortcomings,but list them out,too.You can call them areas where she needs to grow.C:需要改进的地方?那人家给我打电话,了解Sue的情况,我该怎么说呢?A:You begin by saying that she is a good team player,but could benefit from the opportunity to work independently and grow professionally.That makes you honest.C:有道理,我就说她很容易相处,但是如果有一个独立工作,需要精湛技能的机会,将对她有帮助。可是Amy,我怎么才能不去提她的缺点呢?A:Let the interviewer know that you have worked with Sue on a limited basis so you can only speak about your experience on the team.C:就说,跟Sue共事机会不多,有些情况没有发言权。Amy,我有个更简单的办法,要不我这段时间干脆不接电话了,留言也不回。A:That's cowardly.Besides it will reflect poorly on you.C:要这么说,不回电子邮件也行不通了。A:You have another choice.You can tell Sue that you aren't comfortable in giving references to her because you are afraid of saying the wrong thing.C:这样好。我就说自己英语不好,搞不好词不达意,再说错了话。A:It is difficult when a colleague who is not a good worker asks you for a reference.C:你能在重复一遍,我都有哪些选择吗?A:If you agree to be a reference,rehearse what you plan to say.Don't allow yourself to be drawn into areas where you are not comfortable.
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第38期:西方婚礼习俗

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他中午吃饭在餐厅找到美国同事Amy。(Office ambience)C:Amy,能找到你,太好了。A:Will you join me?C:好啊,我正好有事问你。A:What is it?C:我有个同事两个星期后结婚。A:Where is the wedding going to be held?C:婚礼在北京举行,但是因为新郎和新娘都是美国人,所以要按美国的方式。A:How interesting!C:他们不回美国去结婚,是因为家里人想到中国来玩。A:I can't blame them for wanting to see this beautiful part of the world where their relatives live and work.C:这下我有机会体验一下美国式的婚礼了,不过我也遇到了一些问题。A:I can probably guess what some of them are.C:我记得你说过,要RSVP,就是不管能否出席,都要尽快跟人家说一声。A:So did you?C:邀请函里夹了回执卡和信封,我已经填好寄出去了。A:Sounds as if you have it all figured out,Chen Hao.CH:可我不知道应该送给他们什么礼物。******陈豪和Amy坐下边吃午饭。C:我想知道美国人结婚,一般送些什么。A:It is a tradition in change so you need to pay attention to what the bride and groom want.C:我怎么能知道新郎新娘需要什么呢?A:In today's wedding world,couples often register for gifts with an online registry.C:什么叫Online Registry?网上注册?A:It's a wedding site on the Internet.Couples use registries to indicate gifts they like or need.You just go to the site they indicate and order.C:哦,结婚的人可以上网注册,把需要的礼物列出来,供亲朋好友参考。可我怎么找到那个网站呢?A:If the bride and groom have registered,they will send you the website as part of the invitation or in a follow-up e-mail.C:邀请函上好像是有个网址,不过我当时没太注意。好,我回去先看看他们注册的礼品单子上都有些什么。A:That's the idea.C:我买好了礼物,婚礼那天一块儿带去。A:Oops.Bad idea.C:为什么?我想看着他们打开礼物时高兴的样子。A:Chen Hao,they will not open presents during the wedding ceremony or reception.C:干嘛不拆礼物?A:It is not part of the American tradition and it only complicates things.C:我不太明白。A:When the bride and groom have left the event,a family member or friend has to gather any gifts that were brought to the wedding and be responsible for keeping them for the newly-weds until they return from their honeymoon.C:那不是很麻烦吗?A:It could be a lot to manage.C:我知道了,所以最好是事先买好礼物寄过去。A:You got it!
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第37期:如何抓到会议的眼球

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他开完会,跟美国同事Amy一起往外走。(Office ambience)A:You seemed uncomfortable at our meeting.Was something wrong,Chen Hao?C:我是有点不自在。你是怎么看出来的?A:I can recognize the signs when you are troubled.Why were you ill at ease?C:这次开会人太多了,很多都是其他部门的,他们根本不理我,让我觉得自己是局外人,真后悔,还不如不来呢!A:It didn't have to be that way.C:不用这样?你能不能说得具体点?A:There are plenty of things you can do in those situations to be noticed.C:怎样才能让别人注意到我呢?难道要故意把咖啡撒在身上吗?A:Not exactly.I am talking about positive ways to make an impression.If you want to get ahead in the company,people need to recognize you and know who you are.C:我本来是要自我介绍的,可我到的时候,别人已经都在聊天了。A:I saw you come in and you were one of the last to arrive.C:这有什么关系吗?我又没迟到。A:If you are one of the first to arrive,you are in position to greet other people as they come in.You can introduce yourself before they get into conversations with others.C:不管怎么说,跟素不相识的人聊天我还是觉得很别扭,不知道说什么好。A:I have a couple of suggestions.Let's talk about them after work.I need to get to my desk.******下班后。C:Amy,你快告诉我,下次开这种会,我该怎么做。A:It's not as difficult as you think,especially if you find out ahead of time who is going to be there.C:可我怎么才能知道谁来开会呢?A:A couple of ways.If the notice is sent by e-mail,the names of everyone who received the communication are usually listed.C:如果从电子邮件里看不出来呢?A:Then you pick up the phone and call the person who sent out the notice and ask who will be there.C:既然不认识人家,知道会议名单又有什么用呢?A:Once you have the names you can inquire about who they are and gather information about them.When you meet them,you'll know enough to engage them in conversation.C:好是好,提前了解一下与会者的情况,就可以找到合适的话题了。可要这么做,没有几天的时间绝对不够。A:In that case,you do what successful people do to be impressive-you look at the list of who will be at the meeting,find out something about them and then focus on at least three people you'd like to meet.C:这还比较可行。我可以挑出三个最想结识的人,开会之前着重了解一下他们的情况。
职场英语

职场礼节美语 第36期:男女沟通大不同

陈豪在北京的ABC美国公司工作。他有事去找美国同事Amy。(Office ambience)A:Hi Chen Hao,how are you?C:我有个问题,要请教你。你有时间吗?A:Sure.I don't have anything on my calendar for another hour.What's the matter?C:我们正在做一个新项目,宣传最新的客户服务计划。A:That sounds like a good idea.We can always improve customer service.Why is that a problem?C:我们成立了一个小组,包括三男三女,以前互不相识,结果沟通上出现了问题,影响了项目进度。A:What kind of communication issues?C:事先声明,我可没有大男子主义,但我觉得那三个女的浪费了很多时间。A:How?C:她们喜欢谈私事。好不容易谈到主题了,她们又没完没了,直到大家都对方案满意了才肯罢休。A:It's good to be sure that you are all in accord.C:可凡事都要有节制啊。有几次我为了推动进度,打断了她们,结果她们特不高兴。A:I understand what is happening.You have a gender issue.C:什么?性别问题?A:This is going to take a bit more time to explain.Can we continue our conversation over lunch?******Amy和陈豪午饭时继续上午的话题。C:我想了一上午,怎么也想不通早上我们说的事怎么会跟性别有关。A:Remember that you started off by telling me that there were some problems in the group and you immediately zeroed in on the women.C:没错,进度慢,就是那几个女同事的责任。A:Men and women have different approaches to communication that both need to understand.C:男性和女性交流的方式,可能是不一样。我们几个男的都觉得可以行动了,但那几个女的老觉得太仓促。A:As with all conflict,you need to take time to address this.You should talk about what is happening,attempt to understand each other and resolve the issue in a cooperative manner.C:加深相互理解?那具体该怎么做呢?A:Tell the women you appreciate their opinions and expertise.Ask them to focus more on business conversation and less on personal.Next consider how you men are behaving.C:难道说我们这些男的也有做错的地方吗?A:You admitted that you interrupted in an effort to move things along.I bet that you are also trying to dominate and give the women as little chance as possible to speak up.C:我承认,我们确实有控制会议之嫌。一般情况下,听完她们的意见,我们就不再去看她们,生怕她们没完没了地说下去。A:To avoid additional strife and accommodate each other,you need to stop interrupting and trying to dominate.C:我知道了,男性希望马上找到解决问题的办法,而女性喜欢先花时间,建立关系,因此双方就会出现矛盾。
职场英语
关于我们
特惠活动/预约
引领英语
学习资料
其它/合作

上海市普陀区胶州路941号长久商务大厦10楼

400-880-9823
13611700205